From Outcrop Analogues to Reservoir Characterisation

Exclusive field courses in the south-central Pyrenees led by local geologists and geoscientists from the industry

FRACTURED CARBONATES
Fracture analysis, facies and architecture of carbonate depositional systems

September 26-30, 2016; May 15-19; September 4-8, 2017

Appraisal and development of fractured carbonate reservoirs remains a significant challenge because of the generally high degree of heterogeneity in the intensity, distribution and connectivity of the open fracture system. This course uses analogue outcrops and classroom sessions to equip the oil industry geoscientist and reservoir engineer with the essential knowledge from structural geology, fracture characterisation and rock mechanics to work with fractured carbonates.

Instructors: Jon Gutmanis & Lluís Ardèvol i Oró
Assistants: Davinia Díez-Canseco and/or Marc Tudela
Location: southern Pyrenees, the course begins and ends in Barcelona
Cost: EUR 3000
Dates: September 26-30, 2016; May 15-19 and September 4-8, 2017
Closing date: 10 days prior the course begins
Limit: 12 participants.
Level: basic / skill
Delivery: field trip + 1h daily classroom
Physical demand: average hike (maximum 1h walk per day) with some hills

Logistics / HSE

Course outline

Outcrops

  • Triassic and Jurassic dolomites (Adons, Camarasa)
  • Upper Cretaceous inner shelf to shelf-margin limestones (Tremp basin)
  • Eocene ramp carbonates (Alinyà anticline)

Facies

  • Shallowing upward cyclicity in carbonates
  • Coral and rudist reefs, reef zonation
  • Mixed shelf deposits
  • Depositional models and sequence stratigraphy

Fractures

  • Overview of fractured reservoirs (classroom)
  • Structural geology and geomechanics for fractured reservoir characterisation (classroom)
  • Introduction to carbonate fracture models with case histories (classroom)
  • Carbonate fracture types, properties and scales: from pressure solution fractures to stratabound joints to fracture corridors to large faults and their damage zones
  • Relationships between fractures, facies and mechanical stratigraphy
  • Characterising and predicting fractures in the sub-seismic volume
  • The coupled relationship between in situ stress, mechanical anisotropy and fracture distribution
  • Characterising fault damage zones
  • Fracture mapping exercises


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CLASTICS
Dynamic stratigraphy, facies, architecture and fracture analysis of coastal depositional systems

May 22-26, 2017

Appraisal and development of clastic reservoirs rely on sandbody geometries and porosity. In addition, most clastic reservoirs are affected by natural fractures which have either a positive or negative impact on reservoir quality and well performance, be it positive from the presence of open fracture networks or negative from the presence of low k fractures and faults. This course sets out to equip the oil industry geoscientist and reservoir engineer with the essential basic knowledge to work with clastic reservoirs. The course is partially based on the paper Depositional Sequence Response to Foreland Deformation in the Upper Cretaceous of the Southern Pyrenees, Spain, AAPG Bulletin, 2000, by L. Ardèvol, J. Klimowitz, J. Malagón, P. C. Nagtegaal.

Instructors: Lluís Ardèvol i Oró & Jon Gutmanis
Assistants: Davinia Díez-Canesco and/or Marc Tudela
Location: southern Pyrenees, the course begins and ends in Barcelona
Cost: EUR 3000
Dates: May 22-26, 2017
Closing date: 10 days prior the course begins
Limit: 12 participants.
Level: basic / skill
Delivery: field trip + 1h daily classroom
Physical demand: easy short hike on level terrain

Logistics / HSE

Course outline

Outcrops

  • Tremp-Graus and Àger basins (Eocene)
  • Tremp basin (Garumnian facies, Areny sandstone, Upper Cretaceous)

Facies

  • Fluvial, deltaic, estuarine, tidal environments
  • Slope sands, turbidites
  • The channel concept
  • Meander channels vs bioturbated tidal bars
  • Facies patterns, cyclicity, sandbody geometries and architecture, reservoir potential
  • Compartmentalisation, shale distribution, net/gross variations, pinch out, fault and erosional closures, rock heterogeneity, flow-units and barriers
  • Depositional models, sequence stratigraphy, influence of syndepositional tectonics

Fractures

  • Overview of fractured reservoirs (classroom)
  • Structural geology and geomechanics for fractured reservoir characterisation (classroom)
  • Mechanical stratigraphy and fractures
  • Fracture hierarchy from joints to corridors and fault damage zones
  • Fractures in the sub-seismic volume
  • Fracture porosity mapping exercises


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FRACTURED BASEMENTS
Fracture analysis and facies of Palaeozoic rocks and granites

September 12-16, 2017

Appraisal and development of fractured basement and Palaeozoic reservoirs remains a significant challenge because of the generally high degree of heterogeneity in the intensity, distribution and connectivity of the open fracture system. This course sets out to equip the oil industry geoscientist and reservoir engineer with the essential basic knowledge from structural geology, fracture characterisation and rock mechanics to work with fractured basement reservoirs.

Instructors: Jon Gutmanis & Valentí Turú
Assistants: Lluís Ardèvol i Oró, Davinia Díez-Canseco and/or Marc Tudela
Location: central Pyrenees (Catalonia and Andorra), the course begins and ends in Barcelona
Cost: EUR 3000
Dates: September 12-16, 2017
Closing date: 10 days prior the course begins
Limit: 12 participants.
Level: basic / skill
Delivery: field trip + 1h daily classroom
Physical demand: easy short hike on level terrain

Logistics / HSE

Course outline

Outcrops and facies

  • Cambro-Ordovician slates and gneiss
  • Cambro-Ordovician quartzites (tidal, shallow marine)
  • Devonian layered limestones (shallow vs deep water)
  • Permian granites (fractured, weathered)

Fractures

  • An overview of Palaeozoic and basement reservoirs and their characteristics (classroom)
  • Structural geology and geomechanics for fractured reservoir characterisation (classroom)
  • Introduction to basement fracture models with case histories (classroom)
  • Drilling and geomechanics in basement reservoirs
  • Basement and Palaeozoic fracture types, properties and scales: from joints to fracture corridors to large faults and their damage zones
  • Relationships between fractures, facies and mechanical stratigraphy
  • The coupled relationship between in situ stress, mechanical anisotropy and fracture distribution
  • Properties of granite weathered zones


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SALT TECTONICS
Field examples of seismic-scale structures and associated potential reservoirs

September 18-22, 2017

Salt tectonics structures and their associated sediments are classic targets for hydrocarbon exploration. Recently, the south-central Pyrenees are becoming an excellent lab to test Mesozoic seismic-scale structures controlled by salt tectonics, in places not too overprinted by posterior Alpine compression. We illustrate analogue examples for drilled structures where seismic data do not provide an image, and we consider the role of salt in influencing the distribution of potential reservoir facies and fracturing in the adjacent hostrocks. The course is based on the paper Rising and falling diapirs, shifting depocenters, and flap overturning in the Cretaceous Sopeira and Sant Gervàs subbasins (Ribagorça Basin, southern Pyrenees), Tectonics, 2016, by E. Saura, L. Ardèvol, A. Teixell and J. Vergés, and forthcoming papers in progress.

Instructors: Lluís Ardèvol i Oró & Jon Gutmanis
Assistants: Davinia Díez-Canseco and/or Marc Tudela
Guest speakers: Jaume Vergés and/or Eduard Saura (Institute of Earth Science Jaume Almera, Barcelona)
Location: southern Pyrenees, the course begins and ends in Barcelona
Cost: EUR 3000
Dates: September 18-22, 2017
Closing date: 10 days prior the course begins
Limit: 12 participants.
Level: basic / skill
Delivery: field trip + 1h daily classroom
Physical demand: average hike (maximum 1h walk per day) with some hills

Logistics / HSE

Course outline

Outcrops

  • Ribagorça basin, Senterada minibasin, Alinyà anticline
  • Triassic shales and evaporites: the role played by halite in the development of hydrocarbon reservoirs and in sealing
  • Lower Cretaceous shoreface and foreshore grainstones
  • Upper Cretaceous shelf / reefal / outer shelf carbonates and flysch deposits

Passive salt structures (minibasin stage)

  • Rise and fall of diapirs
  • Salt withdrawal minibasins, salt walls
  • Halokynetic sequence stratigraphy: hook and wedge sequences
  • Reservoir distribution: facies, fracture analysis, structural and stratigraphic traps
  • Overturned minibasin wings

Reactive salt structures (extensional stage)

  • Raft tectonics: extensional fault footwalls
  • Salt rollers - rollovers
  • Halokinetic breccias / cap rock
  • Carbonate lentils
  • Folds with large overturned flaps (flap folding)
  • Flip-flop salt walls

Active salt structures (compressional stage)

  • Toe-thrusts anticlines
  • Turtle-structure anticlines; rim synclines
  • Squeezed diapirs
  • Salt and fault welds: criteria for their recognition in the field; salt welds vs Alpine faults
  • Salt canopies and allochthonous sheets

Classroom

  • Geomechanical and fracture properties of salt and influence on sealing and reservoir development


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